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Computer simulations predict the spread of HIV

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 03:20 PM PDT

In a new study, researchers show that computer simulations can accurately predict the transmission of HIV across populations, which could aid in preventing the disease.


Innovation and speculation drive stock market bubble activity, according to new study

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 03:19 PM PDT

A group of data scientists conducted an in-depth analysis of major innovations and stock market bubbles from 1825 through 2000 and came away with novel takeaways of their own as they found some very distinctive patterns in the occurrence of bubbles over 175 years.


Exoplanets where life could develop as it did on Earth

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 02:20 PM PDT

Scientists have identified a group of planets outside our solar system where the same chemical conditions that may have led to life on Earth exist.


BioBits: Teaching synthetic biology to K-12 students

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

As biologists have probed deeper into the genetic underpinnings of life, K-12 schools have struggled to provide a curriculum that reflects those advances. Now, a collaboration between the Wyss Institute at Harvard University, MIT, and Northwestern University has developed BioBits, new educational biology kits that teach students the basic principles of molecular and synthetic biology through fun, hands-on genetic experiments without the need for specialized lab equipment, at a fraction of the cost.




Nature holds key to nurturing green water treatment facilities

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

Scientists have pioneered an innovative new method to incorporate ecological processes to allow ‘green’ water treatment facilities.


A soft, on-the-fly solution to a hard, underwater problem

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

Studying the animals that live in the deep ocean is notoriously difficult, especially because the underwater equipment that exists for sampling them is designed for marine oil and gas exploration and frequently damages the delicate creatures they’re trying to capture. Now, researchers have created a soft, flexible sampling device that interacts with delicate marine life gently, and can be 3D printed directly on board ships, greatly increasing the variety of animals that can be collected in one expedition and reducing costs and time.


Advanced microscopy technique reveals new aspects of water at the nanoscale level

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

A new microscopy technique allows researchers to visualize liquids at the nanoscale level — about 10 times more resolution than with traditional transmission electron microscopy — for the first time.


New competition for MOFs: Scientists make stronger COFs

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

Hollow molecular structures known as COFs suffer from an inherent problem: It’s difficult to keep a network of COFs connected in harsh chemical environments. Now, a team has used a chemical process discovered decades ago to make the linkages between COFs much more sturdy, and to give the COFs new characteristics that could expand their applications.




Harmful dyes in lakes, rivers can become colorless with new, sponge-like material

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

Scientists have created an environmentally friendly way to remove color from dyes in water in a matter of seconds.


Fruitful discoveries: The power to purify water is in your produce

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 01:00 PM PDT

A study of more than a dozen foods shows how fruit and vegetable peels can be used as a natural, low-cost way to remove pollutants such as dyes and heavy metals from water. The methods used can be used from classrooms to kitchens.


New technique uses templates to guide self-folding 3D structures

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 12:56 PM PDT

Researchers have developed a new technique to control self-folding three-dimensional (3D) structures. Specifically, the researchers use templates to constrain deformation in certain selected areas on a two-dimensional structure, which in turn dictates the resulting 3D structure of the material.


What makes diamonds blue? Boron from oceanic crustal remnants in Earth’s lower mantle

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Blue diamonds — like the world-famous Hope Diamond at the National Museum of Natural History — formed up to four times deeper in the Earth’s mantle than most other diamonds, according to new work.




‘Blurred face’ news anonymity gets an artificial intelligence spin

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 10:15 AM PDT

Researchers have devised a way to replace the use of ‘blurring’ faces in news reports when anonymity is needed. The team’s method uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques that aim to improve visuals while amplifying emotions tied to the story.


Gas sensing gut pill beats breath test diagnosis

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 10:15 AM PDT

Findings show the revolutionary gas-sensing capsule, which provides real time detection and measurement of gut gases, could surpass breath testing as the benchmark for diagnosing gut disorders.


Fast, cheap and colorful 3-D printing

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 09:50 AM PDT

People are exploring the use of 3-D printing for wide-ranging applications, including manufacturing, medical devices, fashion and even food. But one of the most efficient forms of 3D printing suffers from a major drawback: It can only print objects that are gray or black in color. Now, researchers have tweaked the method so it can print in all of the colors of the rainbow.


Breaking up ‘fatbergs’: Engineers develop technique to break down fats, oil and grease

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 09:50 AM PDT

Cooking oil and similar waste can clog pipes, harm fish and even grow into solid deposits like the ‘fatbergs’ that recently blocked London’s sewage system. But researchers may have found a way to treat these fats, oils and grease — collectively called FOG — and turn them into energy.




Microscale superlubricity could pave way for future improved electromechanical devices

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:53 AM PDT

A new study finds that robust superlubricity can be achieved using graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, which exhibit ultra-low friction and wear. This is an important milestone for future technological applications in the space, automotive, electronics and medical industries.


Insight into loss processes in perovskite solar cells enables efficiency improvements

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:52 AM PDT

In perovskite solar cells, charge carriers are mainly lost through recombination occurring at interface defect sites. In contrast, recombination at defect sites within the perovskite layer does not limit the performance of the solar cells at present. Teams from the University of Potsdam and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) were able to reach this interesting conclusion through extremely accurate quantitative measurements on 1 cm2 perovskite cells using photoluminescence.


Insight into catalysis through novel study of X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:52 AM PDT

An international team has made a breakthrough at BESSY II. For the first time, they succeeded in investigating electronic states of a transition metal in detail and drawing reliable conclusions on their catalytic effect from the data. These results are helpful for the development of future applications of catalytic transition-metal systems.


Scientists find holes in light by tying it in knots

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:52 AM PDT

Theoretical physicists have found a new way of evaluating how light flows through space — by tying knots in it.




3D-Printed implants shown to help grow ‘real bone’

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:52 AM PDT

Chemically coated, ceramic implants successfully guided the regrowth of missing bone in lab animals while ‘steadily dissolving,’ researchers report.


First-of-its-kind material for the quantum age

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 08:50 AM PDT

A physicist has discovered a new material that has the potential to become a building block in the new era of quantum materials, those that are composed of microscopically condensed matter and expected to change our development of technology.


Improvement of humanlike conversations in humanoid robots

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 07:26 AM PDT

In a symbiotic human-robot interaction project, a multimodal conversation control system and a multi-robot conversation control system were developed to promote a robot with a higher degree of human-like presence as well as a ‘sense of conversing’. This project attempted to expand the field of activity of such conversational robots and has resulted in the development of a child-like android ‘ibuki’, which has equipped with wheels that could enable the android to move around.


Questioning conventional understanding of antifreeze proteins

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 07:26 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered that an ice-binding protein (fcIBP) from the sea ice microalga does not fit in the conventional classification of ice-binding proteins, suggesting unknown mechanisms behind its antifreeze property. This finding could lead to a broader application of the antifreeze protein in food and medical industries.




Sunscreen for dancing molecules

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 07:26 AM PDT

This study is the first to use heavy water (D2O) – a form of water that contains deuterium (D) instead of hydrogen – in the field of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This approach significantly delays sample damage, which is one of the major impediments for broader application of liquid-phase TEM to fragile biological samples.


Electric vehicle charging in cold temperatures could pose challenges for drivers

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 06:37 AM PDT

New research suggests that electric vehicle drivers could face longer charging times when temperatures drop. The reason: cold temperatures impact the electrochemical reactions within the cell, and onboard battery management systems limit the charging rate to avoid damage to the battery.


Red-blood-cell ‘hitchhikers’ offer new way to transport drugs to specific targets

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 06:37 AM PDT

A new drug-delivery technology which uses red blood cells to shuttle nano-scale drug carriers, called RBC-hitchhiking, has been found in animal models to dramatically increase the concentration of drugs ferried precisely to selected organs,


Researchers turn powerful, viscous disinfectants into breathable mist for the first time

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 06:37 AM PDT

A team of researchers have developed a device that diffuses potent disinfectants for airborne delivery. The device works on a range of disinfectants that have never been atomized before, such as Triethylene glycol, or TEG. The team used the device to atomize disinfectants onto environmental surfaces contaminated with bacteria and showed that it eliminated 100 percent of bacteria that commonly cause hospital-acquired infections.




Polymer pill proves it can deliver

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 05:40 AM PDT

Selecting the right packaging to get precious cargo from point A to point B can be a daunting task. Scientists have wrestled with a similar set of questions when packaging medicine for delivery in the bloodstream: How much packing will keep it safe? Is it the right packing material? Is it too big? Is it too heavy? Researchers have developed a new type of container that seems to be the perfect fit for making the delivery.


Tech takes on cigarette smoking

Posted: 01 Aug 2018 05:40 AM PDT

Researchers are using wearable sensor technology to develop an automatic alert system to help people quit smoking.


Implants made by computer-aided design provide good results in patients with rare chest muscle deformity

Posted: 31 Jul 2018 01:41 PM PDT

For patients with Poland syndrome — a rare congenital condition affecting the chest muscle — computer-aided design (CAD) techniques can be used to create custom-made silicone implants for reconstructive surgery of the chest.


Patients opt for 3D simulation for breast augmentation — but it doesn’t improve outcomes

Posted: 31 Jul 2018 12:13 PM PDT

Three-dimensional image simulation is popular among women planning breast augmentation surgery. But while this evolving technology may enhance communication, it doesn’t improve patient satisfaction with the results of the procedure.




Artificial intelligence system designs drugs from scratch

Posted: 31 Jul 2018 12:13 PM PDT

An artificial-intelligence approach can teach itself to design new drug molecules from scratch and has the potential to dramatically accelerate the design of new drug candidates.


Better way found to determine the integrity of metals

Posted: 30 Jul 2018 01:37 PM PDT

Researchers have found a better way to identify atomic structures, an essential step in improving materials selection in the aviation, construction and automotive industries.

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