ScienceDaily: Top Technology News


Ice confirmed at the moon’s poles

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:36 PM PDT

Using data from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument, scientists have identified three specific signatures that definitively prove there is water ice at the surface of the Moon.


Researchers turn tracking codes into ‘clouds’ to authenticate genuine 3-D printed parts

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 01:42 PM PDT

A team has found a way to prove the provenance of 3-D printed parts by embedding QR (Quick Response) codes in an innovative way for unique device identification. The researchers describe converting QR codes into 3-D features so that that they neither compromise the part’s integrity nor announce themselves to counterfeiters who have the means to reverse engineer the part.


Progress toward plugging an antibiotic pump

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 12:51 PM PDT

Using computer modeling, researchers are helping to develop the means to prevent deaths from infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria.


Biosensor allows real-time oxygen monitoring for ‘organs-on-a-chip’

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 12:01 PM PDT

A new biosensor allows researchers to track oxygen levels in real time in ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems, making it possible to ensure that such systems more closely mimic the function of real organs. This is essential if organs-on-a-chip hope to achieve their potential in applications such as drug and toxicity testing.


Super-resolution microscopy: Getting even closer to the limit

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 09:22 AM PDT

In a pioneering study, scientists have demonstrated that the use of chemically-modified DNA aptamers as protein markers allows one to enhance the power of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy as an imaging tool.




Chemical engineers uncover ways to pattern solid surfaces to enhance how water interacts with them

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 09:22 AM PDT

The dynamics of water near solid surfaces play a critical role in numerous technologies, including water filtration and purification, chromatography and catalysis. One well-known way to influence those dynamics, which in turn affects how water “wets” a surface, is to modify the surface hydrophobicity, or the extent to which the surface repels water. Such modifications can be achieved by altering the average coverage, or surface density, of hydrophobic chemical groups on the interface.


Light from ancient quasars helps confirm quantum entanglement

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 08:41 AM PDT

New research boosts the case for quantum entanglement. Scientists have used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. They found correlations among more than 30,000 pairs of photons — far exceeding the limit for a classically based mechanism.


Quantum fluctuations successfully imaged

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 08:30 AM PDT

Scientists have succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. In their experiment, not only were quantum fluctuations visualized, but new information about the sizes, times and distributions of quantum events was extracted.


Enzyme-powered protocells rise to the top

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 08:30 AM PDT

Researchers have successfully assembled enzyme-powered artificial cells that can float or sink depending on their internal chemical activity. The work provides a new approach to designing complex life-like properties in non-living materials.


Taking the brain apart to put it all together again

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 08:30 AM PDT

A new Organ Chip system linked a Brain Chip with two blood-brain barrier (BBB) Chips to recapitulate the interactions between the brain and its blood vessels. This system reacts to methamphetamine exposure just like a human brain, and has allowed scientists to make new discoveries about just how important our blood vessels are for our mental function.




Link between magnetic field strength and temperature

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 08:30 AM PDT

Researchers recently discovered that the strength of the magnetic field required to elicit a particular quantum mechanical process corresponds to the temperature of the material. Based on this finding, scientists can determine a sample’s temperature to a resolution of one cubic micron by measuring the field strength at which this effect occurs. Temperature sensing is integral in most industrial, electronic and chemical processes, so greater spatial resolution could benefit commercial and scientific pursuits.


Supercomputing simulations and machine learning help improve power plants

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 07:42 AM PDT

Researchers are exploring how supercritical carbon dioxide could serve as a cleaner, safer, and more flexible working fluid in power plants than supercritical water by using supercomputing resources and machine learning.


New kind of aurora is not an aurora at all

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 07:42 AM PDT

Thin ribbons of purple and white light that sometimes appear in the night sky were dubbed a new type of aurora when brought to scientists’ attention in 2016. But new research suggests these mysterious streams of light are not an aurora at all but an entirely new celestial phenomenon.


Nanoparticles in our environment may have more harmful effects than we think

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 06:44 AM PDT

Researchers warn that a combination of nanoparticles and contaminants may form a cocktail that is harmful to our cells. In their study, 72 pct. of cells died after exposure to a cocktail of nano-silver and cadmium ions.


Toward fast-charging solid-state batteries

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 06:44 AM PDT

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature.




Can we have a fire in a highly vacuumed environment?

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 06:44 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered that non-flaming combustion (smoldering) of a porous specimen can sustain, even under nearly 1 percent of atmospheric pressure. The thermal structure of a 2-mm-diameter burning specimen at very near extinction condition was successfully measured using an embedded ultra-fine thermocouple, clarifying the key issues that lead to fire extinction at low pressures. The outcome of this research will contribute to improved space exploration fire safety strategies.


Creating ideal silicone molds faster and cheaper

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 06:42 AM PDT

The method of fabricating objects via silicone molding has a long tradition. Until now, however, creating molds for casting complex objects required a lot of experience and still involved manual work, which made the process expensive and slow. Researchers have now developed a tool that not only automatically finds the best design of the molds but also delivers templates for so-called ‘metamolds’: Rigid molds that are 3D-printed and are used to fabricate the silicone molds.


Understanding urban issues through credit cards

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:52 AM PDT

Digital traces from credit card and mobile phone usage can be used to map urban lifestyles and understand human mobility, according to a new report.


Autonomous gene expression control nanodevice will contribute to medical care

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:52 AM PDT

Researchers constructed integrated gene logic-chips called ‘gene nanochips.’ These self-contained nanochips can switch genes on or off according to the environment, where photo-reprogramming of the logic operation by UV irradiation is possible. Moreover, the researchers completed proof-of-concept experiments using artificial cells that produced the diagnostics and reactants (the desired RNA and protein) in a confined nanochip, suggesting the potential of autonomous nanochips in future medical prevention and care.


Next-gen insect repellents to combat mosquito-borne diseases

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:52 AM PDT

Nearly 700 million people suffer from mosquito-borne diseases — such as malaria, West Nile, Zika and dengue fever — each year, resulting in more than 1 million deaths. Today, researchers report a new class of mosquito repellents based on naturally occurring compounds that are effective in repelling the bugs, including those that are resistant to pyrethroid insecticides and repellents.




A new generation of artificial retinas based on 2D materials

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:52 AM PDT

Scientists report they have successfully developed and tested the world’s first ultrathin artificial retina that could vastly improve on existing implantable visualization technology for the blind. The flexible 2-D material-based device could someday restore sight to the millions of people with retinal diseases.


New drug could prevent debilitating side effect of cancer treatment

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:52 AM PDT

About 50,000 people in the US are diagnosed annually with head, neck, nasal and oral cancers. Most are treated with radiation, and of those, 70-80 percent develop a painful and debilitating side effect called severe oral mucositis. A new drug could potentially prevent the condition.


A GPS for inside your body

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:51 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a system that can pinpoint the location of ingestible implants inside the body using low-power wireless signals.


Techniques for reducing sugar content in dairy products show promise

Posted: 20 Aug 2018 05:51 AM PDT

Dairy foods are popular among consumers, and sales gross more than $125 billion per year (IDFA, 2017). With dairy product popularity comes new demands from consumers for healthier, low-calorie products that taste the same as their higher calorie counterparts. Researchers now review the options available to the dairy industry to reduce sugar in products such as ice cream, yogurt, and flavored milk without sacrificing flavor.


The environmental cost of contact lenses

Posted: 19 Aug 2018 01:07 PM PDT

Many people rely on contact lenses to improve their vision. But these sight-correcting devices don’t last forever and they are eventually disposed of in various ways. Now, scientists are reporting that throwing these lenses down the drain at the end of their use could be contributing to microplastic pollution in waterways.

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